Canada page 12-14
   New Brunswick   

The Land

New Brunswick borders on Nova Scotia, Quebec and the U.S.
state of Maine.
It is rectangular in shape, extending 322 km north to
south and 242 km east to west.
New Brunswick has a land mass of 73 500 km2, 85 percent of which
is forest. The northern part of the province is quite mountainous,
the tallest peak being Mount Carleton, 820 m high.
The interior consists mainly of a rolling plateau,
flatter in the east and more hilly in the southeast.

The main rivers are the Miramichi, Nepisguit, Restigouche
and Saint John. Known as "oa-lus-tuk" or "beautiful river"
to the Indians, the Saint John waters the fertile lands of
the western part of the province over a distance of 725 km.
Downstream, in the Madawaska area, it traces a natural boundary
between the state of Maine and Canada.

Twice a day, with the rising tide of the Atlantic Ocean,
100 billion tonnes of water stream past a rocky
headland in the Bay of Fundy.
The current created is practically equal to the flow of
all the world's rivers over a 24-hour period.
The eastern end of the Bay has tides of nearly 15 m,
the highest in the world, sufficient to completely
submerge a four-storey building.


The History

The existence of New Brunswick was known to the Europeans
as early as the 1400s, when intrepid Basque fishermen plied
their trade off Miscou in the northeast region of the province.
At that time, the region was inhabited by the Malecite
and Mi'Kmaq Indians.
The Mi'Kmaqs were the first to receive Samuel de Champlain
and the French when they landed in New Brunswick in 1604.
The Aboriginals established good relations with the French
from the outset, helping the French settlers, known as Acadians,
to adapt to their new country and taking part in the
French attacks on New England.

The British and French feuded over the area for a century.
Control passed back and forth until 1713, when all of Acadia
was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Utrecht.
With time, France lost interest in the Acadians, turning most
of its attention to New France and the burgeoning fur trade.

By 1755, England had established its dominance as a colonial power.
Fearing that the Acadians were a security threat,
the British deported, mainly to the United States,
all Acadians who would not swear allegiance to the British Crown.
Their exile lasted eight years, after which a significant proportion
returned to their homeland.

In 1783, the western part of Nova Scotia became the home of
thousands of Loyalists who had taken flight in the aftermath
of the American Revolution.
These American colonists, wishing to remain faithful to
the British Crown, founded communities in the northern part
of the province.
This mass influx of Loyalists created a rift between
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and New Brunswick became a
separate province in June, 1784.
In 1867 it joined other provinces to form the Dominion of Canada.


The People

In 1996, the population of New Brunswick was 761 075. With the highest percentage of Francophones outside Quebec
(almost 35 percent),
New Brunswick is Canada's only officially bilingual province.

The heritage of New Brunswick's people is a blended one,
combining elements of the French, British Loyalist,
Scots and Irish traditions, with later elements of German,
Scandinavian and Asian.
The little municipality of New Denmark boasts North America's
largest Danish colony.

The Aboriginal people of New Brunswick number more than
12 000, most of them Mi'Kmaq and Malecite.

The coasts and river valleys are the areas of heaviest population;
Saint John is the largest city, followed by Moncton
and Fredericton, the provincial capital.


The Economy

Leading the manufacturing industries are food and beverages,
followed by pulp and paper, sawmills, manufacturers of furniture
and other wood-based industries, metal processing, transportation
equipment and processing of non-metallic ores and primary metals.

Tourism is a vital part of the province's economy.
In 1991, nearly 1.5 million people visited New Brunswick's
tourist attractions, including its two national parks
and numerous provincial parks.

New Brunswick has an abundance of natural resources.
Forests occupy 85 percent of the land mass; consequently,
wood and wood products are a cornerstone of the economy,
with black spruce and fir leading the list.
Mining, too, is important. New Brunswickers mine silver,
bismuth, cadmium, coal, copper, natural gas, gold, oil,
lead, potash, peat, tungsten, silica, salt and zinc.

Fishing and agriculture are also very important.
More than 50 varieties of fish and shellfish are caught here;
in fact, the town of Shediac has been called the
"lobster capital of the world."
In agriculture, New Brunswick is self-sufficient in the
production of forage, milk and poultry.
Its potatoes are renowned in over 25 countries; strawberries,
apples, blueberries and vegetables are produced
for local consumption and for export.

In recent years, New Brunswick has undertaken an effort
to further promote economic development that has resulted
in new industries and companies being established in the province.
Information technology has been a growth industry for the
province, which now describes itself as the
"Call Centre Capital of North America," with well over a dozen
companies having established facilities in the province.


   Canada    Yukon
   Northwest Territories    Nunavut
   British Columbia    Alberta
   Saskatchwan    Manitoba
   Ontario    Quebec
   Newfoundland    New Brunswick
   Prince Edward Island    Nova Scotia



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